Republicans in the world.

Republican tradition as a concept came to the fore, apparently after the 1989 anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe. Then, the theoretical debate, which was engaged in political and social theory during the XX century, suddenly became irrelevant. The two main concepts opposed each other on the political ring during the XX century – liberalism and Marxism. Suddenly, one of them was thrown out of the ring with a powerful blow. Since 2008, however, we are witnessing the revival of Marxism. And it is good that twenty years ago this rebirth was being prepared. At least in the nineties and at zero it seemed that Liberalism had won undivided; it was expressed in Francis Fukuyama’s famous ideological thesis that the end of history was over, liberalism had fulfilled all its hopes and ideas. At first, a small group of people complained about this assertive thesis, but over time, it generated a rather powerful flow of political thought, which is now called in English republicanism, a classic republican tradition. It was based on two thousand years of reflection on freedom that was peculiar to people before the liberal doctrine was formed. And this reflection on freedom is no less than classic liberalism, emphasizing that republicanism tries to protect human rights and freedoms. But this is somewhat different way of thinking than economic or political liberalism. The main work on republicanism is the study of Quentin Skinner, a former professor of history at Cambridge, Philip Pettit, a professor of political science at Princeton University; in 1977 he published the book Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Goverment. And the researcher, Isolta Honokhan. She teaches at Dublin University College in Ireland. Her book is called Civic Republicanism (2002), the easiest way to read about it for the first time. Describing modern republicanism, we can say that this is an ideology of how people can live together based on the principles of self-governing communities on the basis of conscious interaction and co-administration.